Sunday, May 24, 2020
Hundreds of centuries before the fourteenth century, during it and yet still after, civilization, led by the educated theologians, politicians and whoever else made up the ruling class, women were looked at as the DevilÃ¢â¬â¢s ally Ã¢â¬â a sensual and deceitful creature who was a constant bearer of sin and the cause of most of manÃ¢â¬â¢s misfortune. Women then and now may look upon most of these Ã¢â¬Å"devilishÃ¢â¬ characteristics as desirable, strong-willed and feministic. Chaucer appears to support women and specifically these devilish feminists by creating two very strong-willed and successful women in the Wife of Bath and the old hag in the WifeÃ¢â¬â¢s tale. However, through all of the tough outer attributes, on the inside are the same classic and traditionalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The complexity and uniqueness of Dame Alice, as is her name, is symbolized by having a prologue practically twice as long as her tale. Chaucer creates a tremendous example of all the things women desired at the time that men would not allow them with Dame Alice. She strikes fear into the town and its parish to the point where she gets and does whatever she wants. A perfect example of the fear and respect the town has for her is on lines 459-463 in the General Prologue: Ã¢â¬Å"In all the parish not a dame dared stir, Towards the altar steps in front of her, And if indeed they did, so wrath was she as to be quite put out of charity.Ã¢â¬ Furthermore, her extravagance and boldness are exhibited in numerous cases, including lines 457-458: Ã¢â¬Å"In making cloth she showed so great a bent she bettered those of Ypres and of Ghent.Ã¢â¬ As well as on lines 463-467: Ã¢â¬Å"Her kerchiefs were of finely woven ground; I dared have sworn they weighed a good ten pound, The ones she wore on Sunday, on her head. Her hose were of the finest scarlet red and gartered tight; her shoes were soft and new.Ã¢â¬ Likewise on lines 480-483: Ã¢â¬Å"Well wimpled up, and on her head a hat as broad as is a buckler or a shield; She had a flowing mantle that concealed large hips, her heels spurred sharply under that.Ã¢â¬ The Wife of Bath is a zealous woman who freely admits to all the lust, the conniving and the spoiledness that defines her. Furthermore, she prides herself in the fact
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1556 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Review Tags: Duty Essay Tort Essay Did you like this example? Once a duty of care has been established not only should the defendant owe a duty of care, but also must be in breach of that duty. Therefore the defendant should have failed to come up to the standard of care required by law for fulfilment of duty. What is the standard of care and has the standard been breached are two questions that will arise to establish a breach of that duty. Standard of care required in negligence law typically relates to a persons conduct, rather than a persons state of mind. The basic rule is that the defendant must conform to the standard of care expected of a reasonable person. The so-called reasonable person in the law of negligence is a creation of legal fiction. This legal fiction steps into the shoes of the defendant and such a person is really an ideal, focusing on how a typical person, with ordinary prudence, would act in certain circumstances. The actual defendant maybe stupider or more ignorant or maybe cleverer or more knowle dgeable but is still judged by this abstract impersonal standard. The actual knowledge and experience of the defendant will also be taken into account. It is therefore a question of foreseeabilty rather than probability. Foreseeabilty can only be discovered as mentioned previously through actual knowledge and experience. Whereas probability will not depend on those factors.Ã Ã For instance one may consider a defendant working on a loading dock and tossing large bags of grain onto a truck. During the process, defendant notices two children playing near the truck. The defendant throws a bag towards the truck and unintentionally strikes one child. In this instance, a jury would take into account the defendants actual knowledge that children were playing in the area when the jury determines whether the defendant acted reasonably under the circumstances. One must note, however, that the defendant would be liable for negligence only if the defendant owed a duty to the child. According to the dictum of Alderson B, the objective standard is defined as Negligence is the omission to do something which a reasonable man guided upon those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs would do,or something which a prudent and reasonable man wouldnt do.Ã  In Glasgow Corporation v Muir the House of Lords stated that the standard of foresight of the reasonable man is an impersonal test independent of the idiosyncrasies of the particular Defendant. Therefore that it is an objective test. Further the relationship between the Plaintiff and Defendant may also lead the courts to modify the standard required; Goldman v Hargrave.Ã Ã This was a case where there was a failure to extinguish a fire started by natural causes. It took into account what was reasonable to expect in his individual circumstances. It is left to the judge to decide what in the circumstances of a reasonable man would have had in contemplation and there by room for diversity of view. Therefore the outcome maybe unpredictable even in the tiny majority of cases. Where the Defendant is in breach of duty and thus negligent; if the plaintiff is exposed to an unreasonable risk of harm, the court must weigh a number of factors in the balance. .As the danger increase so must the precaution. There must be a balance between the magnitude of the risk and the burden to the defendant in doing what the defendant should or should not have done; The magnitude of the risk includes the likely hood of harm, the gravity of harm. Also social utility of the activity and the cost and practicability of precautionary measures to minimize or eliminate the risk and make a value judgment as to what a reasonable man wouldve done in the circumstances. Under magnitude of risk; likely hood of harm; In Bolton v Stone; the ball hit from the cricket ground and hit the Plaintiff. This happens once every five years and therefore it was held that there was no neg ligence. Reasonable man do in fact take into account the degree of risk and do not act upon a bare possibility as they would if the risk were more substantial.Ã Ã In terms of Gravity of harm the greater the possibility to harm the plaintiff the greater the chance of liability; Paris v Stephey; which involved a risk of an eye injury, the duty of care is owed to the plaintiff himself and if he suffers from some disability, the disability must be taken into account as long as it is or should be known to the defendant. Asquith L.J stated that it is necessary to balance the risk against the consequences of not taking it. Therefore in terms of Social utility would be where the validity to society of the defendants activities are examined; Watt v Hertfortshire CC it was held that the fire authorities had not been negligent for the risk involved to W was not so great as to prohibit the attempt to save life. The commercial end to make profit is very different from the human end.Ã  Finally in the case where cost and practicability of precautionary measures to minimize or eliminate the risk; in the case of Latimer, a factory floor became slippery after a flood. It was held that the defendant had done all they could to prevent the injury n thereby not negligent. The greater the risk, the less receptive a court is likely to be to a defence based simply upon cost in terms of money of the required precautions. Most difficult cases involve defendants with special skills or qualifications. Where the defendant is exercising a special skill or belongs to a particular profession the defendant has to conform to the standards of a reasonably competent member of that profession. If a driver collapses and the passenger tries to bring the vehicle to halt, it would not amount to negligence. However in cases where a person is in exercise of a particular skill, law expects him to show the amount of competence associated with a proper discharge of the duties of tha t profession. The Roman term Imeritia Culpae adnumeraturÃ Ã comes into play similar to that of English Law. In Phillips v Whiteley; the plaintiff arranged for her ears to be pierced by a jeweller and as a result infected her ears. It was held that the jeweller was not liable as they had never claimed to reach the standard of a surgeon. In terms of a special skill the hallmark case of Bolam v Friern Hospital established a test where a man need not possess the highest expert skills. The issue was whether a doctor failing to prescribe a relevant drug before treatment was negligent. It was held that the Defendants were not liable. The question was whether the standard of an ordinary skilled man exercised and professed to have that special skill. There is no uniformity as to what is proper. Subsequently it was adopted in Roe v Minister of Health and the Bolam test applied to all medical practitioners, doctors, surgeons etc. In the case of Roe it was held that the hospital wa s not liable because it was not reasonably foreseeable at that time. In the case of Wilsher v Essex the Cout of Appeal rejected the argument that a junior inexperienced Doctor owes a lesser standard of care than a more experienced doctor. Mustill LJ stated that a standard of care which patient is entitled to demand would vary according to the chance of recruiting and rostering. Therefore a general practitioner can be expected to have the expertise of a specialist but should when necessary take appropriate specialist advice. In the case of Lawyers the test to be applied is what is expected of a reasonably competent council of the appellants seniority and experience; Moy v Pettman Smith. Courts will be able to rely upon its own knowledge and experience. However in terms of the medical profession the courts should not attempt to put itself into the shoes of a surgeon; Sidaway v Bethlem Royal Hospital. The relationship between the plaintiff and defendant might also lead the cou rts to modify the content of the Defendants duty where the Plaintiff submitted himself to treatment by someone whom he knew of limited competence. In Nettleship v Weston,Ã Ã a learner driver should come up to the standards of an ordinary competent driver. No reasonable man handles a stick of dynamite and a walking stick in the same way.Ã  Children may be liable in negligence and are judged by what might be expected of a reasonable child of the defendants age; Mullin v Richards; Parents ,may also be liable for instance Would a reasonable, careful parent leave his child out of his or her sight for a second in that vicinity?Ã Ã Thus it would be a breach of that standard. When the courts find a clearly established practice the burden of proof is a heavy one. If not, it reverses it and requires him to justify his conduct. In conclusion therefore the actual defendant is to be compared with a reasonable man in the same circumstances and whether the standard has been breached, is a question of fact. The court looks at the actions of the defendant to see if his actions measure up to the standard. If they do not, the Defendant is in breach. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Negligence Tort For Legal Duties" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(35) " and networked computing are here\." Supplier Relationships: A Strategic Initiative Jagdish N. Sheth Goizueta Business School Emory University Arun Sharma University of Miami Jagdish N. Sheth is Charles H. We will write a custom essay sample on Supplier Relationships: a Strategic Initiative or any similar topic only for you Order Now Kellstadt Professor of Marketing, Emory Business School, Emory University and Arun Sharma is Associate Professor of Marketing, University of Miami. This paper extends research published by the authors in Industrial Marketing Management (March 1997). Please address correspondence to Arun Sharma, Department of Marketing, University of Miami, P. O. Box 248147, Coral Gables FL 33124, Telephone: (305) 284 1770, FAX: (305) 284 5326. Supplier Relationships: A Strategic Initiative* Abstract In an increasing competitive marketplace, firms are seeking new methods of enhancing competitive advantage. Today, purchasing is becoming a strategic function and a key factor in competitive positioning. This paper suggests that effective relationship with suppliers will provide firms with next-generational competitive advantage. With consolidation of firms within industries, continuos product evolution and constant pressure on costs, supplier relationships will become more critical in the future. This paper discusses the emergence of supplier relationships, and how this shift toward supplier relationships has and will change the role, processes and strategies of firms. Although purchasing has strategic importance within a firm, good relationships between customers and suppliers are elusive. Firms, therefore, need to emphasize aspects that will enhance supplier relationships. * This paper extends research published by the authors in Industrial Marketing Management (March 1997). Supplier Relationships: A Strategic Initiative Introduction Firms are facing increasingly competitive environments characterized by continuos pressure on costs, large global players, continuously evolving products, customer fragmentation and emerging technologies. To ensure success, firms realize that they cannot be experts in all businesses and are concentrating on their core competencies. As an example, Westinghouse is selling its power and defense lines to concentrate on the broadcasting business. To enhance their performance in non-core competency areas, companies are reevaluating business relationships so as to form closer relationships with strategic suppliers [1, 2, 3]. Firms have realized that collaborative business relationships improve a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to respond to the new business environment by allowing them to focus on their core businesses and reduce costs in business processes. In an earlier paper, we had suggested that the source of next-generational competitive advantage will be collaborative relationships that firms have with their suppliers . We suggested four reasons for this phenomena. First, marketers or sellers are driving this change as firms have started identifying and catering to the needs of specific customers. Thus, having a relationship with suppliers will enable firms to receive better service and therefore be more efficient in procurement. Second, firms recognize that supplier relationships will allow them to be more effective. It is easier to implement strategies such as quality platforms, if firms have relationships with their suppliers. Third, there are enabling technologies that allow firms to select their best customers and suppliers. Computer programs allow firms to calculate profitability Page 2 associated with each customer or supplier. Finally, competition and the growth of alliances are forcing firms to develop better supplier relationships to maintain a competitive edge. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize that supplier partnerships will provide a strategic advantage to firms. This paper identifies the benefits of supplier partnerships and provides guidelines for future supplier partnering. Shift in Organizational Strategy The reason for the emerging emphasis on supplier relationships is the shift in organizational buying strategies . Organizational purchasing strategies have been dramatically changing for four reasons (please see Figure 1). First, global competitiveness had made firms realize the competitive advantages of creating and managing supply chain relationships. Second, emergence of the Total Quality Management philosophy has encouraged Ã¢â¬Å"reverse marketingÃ¢â¬ starting with external customers and moving backward into procurement processes. For example, Demand Driven Manufacturing or flexible manufacturing and operations have been instituted in order to serve the diversity of demand with respect to form, place and time value to customers. The role of suppliers is critical in this regard. Third, industry restructuring through mergers, acquisitions and alliances on a global basis has reorganized the procurement function from a decentralized administrative function to a centralized strategic function. This is further intensified by outsourcing many support functions such as data processing, and human resources. Finally, uses of information technologies have restructured the buying philosophy, processes and platforms by allowing firms to share market information and use market information to schedule design and manufacturing of products better. Page 3 Fundamentally, the consequence of changing paradigms of organizational strategy is likely to result in a two dimensional shift as shown in Figure 2. Organizational purchasing strategy shifts from a transaction oriented to a relational oriented philosophy, and from a decentralized domestic sourcing to a centralized global sourcing process. Relationship with Suppliers As stated earlier, we suggest that developing relationship with suppliers will be critical for the effective functioning of firms. This trend is reflected in Table 1 that shows that large firms have substantially reduced their number of suppliers. This trend also suggests that some suppliers would be exclusive to firms. The primary reasons are that corporations are becoming leaner. The procurement function is becoming more centralized while the profit-and-loss (P) responsibility of firms is becoming less centralized. Business-unit heads are raising more questions about the way things are bought. And as vertically integrated companies Ã¢â¬â those that have complete internal capabilities and are self-sufficient Ã¢â¬â become relics and outsourcing of operations become a reality, more opportunities to partner with suppliers will arise. Taking advantage of these opportunities is increasingly important for several reasons: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Declining market prices. Nobody expects prices to rise anymore. There is going to be a tighter squeeze on the margins of customer companies. They would like to get that margin reestablished by working with suppliers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rising competitive intensity. With the restructuring of the world economy, the formation of the World Trade Organization, and greater economic integration within and between regions, global and regional consolidation is clearly taking place and resulting in greater Page 4 competition. Advanced technology enablers. Electronic commerce and networked computing are here. You read "Supplier Relationships: a Strategic Initiative" in category "Papers" Dramatically reduced cycle times are becoming an ordinary achievement. These require partnering with suppliers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reverse marketing strategies. The traditional process flow Ã¢â¬â from R and sourcing to manufacturing, sal es and service Ã¢â¬â is becoming a thing of the past. Today, market-focused organizations are organizing into reverse marketing Ã¢â¬â starting with the end users. Partnering with suppliers is critical to this strategy. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strategic positioning. In the past, companies partnered primarily for operational efficiency (i. . , just-in-time procedures or zero-inventory models). Today, intense competition is coming from existing rivals, new entrants and the threat of substitutes. Partnering with suppliers is an increasingly important way of minimizing the competitionÃ¢â¬â¢s negative impact on an industry. Example of Companies Benefitting from Supplier Relationships The major research regarding the advantage of supplier relationships comes from a study of the Japanese automotive component industry . They found that the average length of the relationship between suppliers and buyers was 22 years. In addition, the major customer bought about half the output of the supplier firm. About 26% of the supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s development effort was devoted to a single customer. Competition was restricted to 2-4 other suppliers. Finally, the quality of delivered product was very good. The data would suggest that supplier relationship enhanced the design efforts of the buying company and reduced uncertainty and costs for the Page 5 supplier company. Eastman Kodak, Ford Motor Company, Levi Strauss, DuPont , McKesson and Bose corporation demonstrate that some savings can be achieved by supplier relationships . These firms as well as examples of other firms using specific tactics to benefit from successful relationships are discussed next: Eastman Kodak Company: Eastman Kodak Company has outsourced its data and information processing system to IBM. Kodak has achieved substantial cost savings through reducing personnel, assets and capital expenditures in an area that is not its area of core competency. This shift toward asking data processing and systems management consultants to manage the information and data processing of a firm has accelerated as major firms such as Xerox and Ryder have outsourced their internal data processing systems. Ford Motor Company: Ford formed a relationship with one of their own clutch suppliers. Ford examined the production process of their supplier and was able to reduce the cost of the clutch by 20% benefitting both Ford and the clutch supplier. Similarly, based on their past experience with Donnelly, Honda picked Donnelly as an exterior mirror supplier, although Donnelly had no experience in the area . Honda sent its engineers into DonnellyÃ¢â¬â¢s plant, and Honda and Donnelly engineers reorganized the plant and re engineered the product process. Sales are expected to be $60 million in 1997 and costs are expected to decline 2% annually benefitting both Honda and Donnelly. JC Penny and Levi Strauss: JC Penny and Levi Strauss are linked with an electronic Data Page 6 interchange (EDI) that allows Levi Strauss to obtain sales data. Levi Strauss obtains data on the exact size of jeans sold in individual stores. This data allows Levi Strauss to better plan the production process as well as better control inventory and delivery. This saving leads to a reduction in costs and prices benefitting both JC Penny and Levi Strauss. DuPont: Dupont has reduced the costs of each purchase transaction in the maintenance and repair supplies division from $120 to $16 by working with a smaller number of suppliers. DuPont selected one distributor in each region for a supplier relationship. They then implemented a paperless order, receipt and payment process. In addition to decreased costs of transaction, inventory at the maintenance and repair facilities were reduced by 50%. McKesson Drug Company: McKesson a major drug distributor, developed a relationship with Johnson and Johnson, one of their major suppliers. Through a joint computer system development effort, both firms receive data on inventory, point of sale, demand, and customer information. This has led to Johnson and Johnson providing better service to McKesson increasing the level of service that McKesson provides to its customers. Due to the success of the relationship, Johnson and Johnson has turned over a million dollars worth of business to McKesson. Bose Corporation: Bose corporation has attempted to eliminate both purchasers and salespeople by bringing suppliers into the manufacturing process. Suppliers have access to BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s data, employees and processes. They work with BoseÃ¢â¬â¢s engineers on present and future products. The Page 7 reduction in personnel reduces costs for both sides, and a direct contact between the user and producer enhances quality and innovation. Establishing and Maintaining Supplier Relationships Wilson  suggests that the majority of alliances fail. We feel that most of the problems are associated with the selection and maintaining of supplier relationships. We present research finding from academic research, USGAO  and our own experiences. In order to establish relationships, we suggest that firms be very selective in their criteria. In addition to the normal criteria of competency and quality, we suggest the following additional factors be taken into consideration: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Trust and Commitment to Long-term Goals. Both suppliers and buyers need to demonstrate trust and commitment toward a long-term vision. Trust and commitment have been shown to be the major predictors of successful relationships. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mutual Benefit. The relationship should be of benefit to both the buyer and the seller. If the relationship has one-sided benefits, the relationship will not last. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Top Management Support. Most successful relationships are associated with support from the top managers of a firm. As examples, the success of Walmart and Corning in forming relationships is because their CEOs have supported supplier relationships. Also, DuPont and Roadway Express have formed an Executive Board that meets at both companies to enhance their relationship . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Compatible Organizational Culture. The culture of firms should be compatible. This Page 8 uggests that they share common values and share common reward systems. A major relationship initiative between two telecommunication firms did not work because they did not share a common work philosophy. One firm was very intense, whereas the other firm was laid back. The relationship dissolved in six months. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sharing of Information. Relationships require sharing of information. The benefits of relationships arise from reducing the uncertainty associated with transaction oriented exchanges. Information increases certainty and reduces needless interaction. As an example, Bailey Controls, a manufacturer of control systems shares data with two of its main electronic distributors that has allowed Bailey to reduce inventory and costs . Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong and Open Communications. Strong and open communications reduces misunderstanding and enhances the quality of relationships. Maintaining Successful Relationships The following aspects are regarded as important for the successful maintenance of relationships. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Simple and Flexible Contract. Simple and flexible contracts enhance relationships as they are used as guides rather than specifying all contingencies. For example, when Kodak outsourced their computer support services to IBM, they used an eleven-page contract . In contrast, typically simple business contracts run to about 30 pages. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Intensive Management Involvement. Cross functional teams from both the supplier and buyer organizations that meet periodically to enhance their relationships. For example, Ford uses salespeople to provide suppliers with consumer feedback . Page 9 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Periodic Performance Monitoring. We have found that performance monitoring is critical for relationships. Suppliers also appreciate a formal performance evaluation method. As an example, Motorola evaluates and generates a score card for all of its suppliers . The supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s next order is based on the supplierÃ¢â¬â¢s previous performance. Suppliers appreciate this knowledge and compete better. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Internal Controls. It is intuitive but companies need to protect access and distribution of confidential information with rigorous internal controls. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Problem Solving Procedures. Companies need to establish problem solving procedures that reduce conflicts or prevent conflicts. One of the simplest forms is frequent communication at all levels of the customer and supplier organization. Organizational Changes Need to Establish Supplier Relationships As stated earlier, as we traverse from a transaction and domestic orientation to a relationship and global orientation, firms will need to emphasize the development of relationship with suppliers. This emphasis of a relationship orientation toward suppliers will lead to an expertise in many aspects of business buying. These areas are highlighted in Figure 3, raised in our earlier paper  and discussed next. 1. Supplier as a Customer. As discussed earlier, there will be a thrust toward developing and maintaining relationship with customers. However, firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding in this area is very limited. Firms will need to develop commitment, trust and cooperation with their suppliers. Firms will need to invest in mutual goals, interdependence, structural bonds, adaptation, non Page 10 retrievable assets, shared technology and social bonds to ensure successful relationships . 2. Cross-Functional Supplier Teams. Marketers have used interdisciplinary teams to contact and maintain relationships with their customers. As individual suppliers relationships become more important we expect a similar thrust toward cross-functional teams that are dedicated or focused on their key suppliers. The importance of individual suppliers is expected to increase because of the emergence of sourcing on a global and relational basis with a few key suppliers. Firms will need to change goals, reward structure and group norms of the purchasing function. 3. Does Partnering Pay? Firms will need to monitor the return on investment in establishing relationships with suppliers. Therefore, firms will need to develop a performance metric that analytically quantifies supplier relationship equity. We feel that supplier partnering with smaller share suppliers will not be economical. The cost-benefit analysis of supplier relationships should result in increased supplier selectivity. 4. Supply Experience Curves. Managing supplier relationships will not be an easy task. The task of managing relationships on a global basis will be more complex and not analogous to domestic supplier management as most business customers have realized. Therefore, in industries where supply function is a key strategic advantage, companies need to focus on creating core competency in supply side management and develop sharper experience curves. Page 11 5. Hub and Spokes Organization. We expect organizations to reduce the number of uppliers in each product or service category. In addition, re engineering has forced firms to out source internal activities. We expect the results of these two trends to lead to a hub and spoke organization in which one or two suppliers in each product or service category are the spokes and the procurement organization becomes the hub on a global basis. 6. Bo nding with Suppliers. Marketers, specifically those that practice relationship marketing have learned to bond with their customers. Bonding relates to the empathy that the marketing organizations feel toward their customer groups. With an increasing trend toward creating, managing, and enhancing ongoing relationships with suppliers on a global basis, organizations will have to invest in supplier bonding processes and philosophies. 7. Global Sourcing. We expect global sourcing to be a source of strategic advantage. While several global enterprises, especially in the automotive, high technology and the aerospace industries are establishing processes and platforms, it is still at an infancy stage of practice in other industries. Firms will have to develop expertise in global sourcing strategies as well as global logistics. . Cross-Culture Values. Firms will need to be more aware of cross-cultural values. These values may be in conflict with the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s present value system. As an example, firms in the US are accused of focusing on short-term profitability whereas firms in Japan are concerned about long-term positioning. Similarly, in some cultures, reciprocity is declared illegal and unethical Page 12 where as in other cultures it is the preferred way of doing business. What is considered as an agency fee in one country is recognized as a bribe, subject to prosecution under the anticorruption laws. Similarly, doing business with family members and politically connected individuals are presumed to provide a sense of trust and commitment in some cultures whereas it is considered as nepotism and unethical behavior in others. 9. Cross-National Rules. Firms will also have to learn about cross national rules. Specifically, the two tier regulations (one for domestic and the other for foreign enterprises) are common with respect to ownership, management control, and co-production practices in countries such as China. With the rise of nationalism in recent years, this has become a key issue for global enterprises such as McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, Coca-Cola, General Electric, and Enron, especially as they expand their market scope and supply scope in large emerging nations such as India, China, and Indonesia. 10. Services Procurement. As organizations out source more and more internal services, and as suppliers engage in providing value-added services to their customers, firms need to better understand and research services procurement. Additionally, as most advanced countries are services economies, services procurement will rise in prominence. Conclusions The paper examined the reasons for the emergence supplier relations as source of Page 13 competitive advantage. The paper discusses successful relationships, rules for developing relationships and concludes with organizational strategies that will enhance supplier relationships. Page 14 References 1. Napolitano, Lisa, Customer-Supplier Partnering; A Strategy Whose Time has Come, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 4 (Fall), 1-8 (1997). United States General Accounting Office, Partnerships: Customer-Supplier Relationships can be Improved through Partnering, Report Number 94-173, Washington, D. C. (1994). Magnet, Myron, The New Golden Rule of Business, Fortune, February 21, 60-64 (1994). Sheth, Jagdish N. , and Arun Sharma, Supplier Relationships: Emerging Issues and Challenges, Industrial Marketing Management, 26 (2), 91-100 (1997). Wasti, S Nazli, Jeffrey K. Liker, Risky business or competitive power? Supplier involvement in Japanese product design, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 14 (September), 337-55 (1997). Wilson, David T. , An Integrated Model of Buyer Seller Relationships, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23, 4, 335-45, (1995). Emshwiller, John R. Suppliers Struggle to Improve Quality as Big Firms Slash their Vendor Roles, Wall Street Journal, August 16, B1, (1991). 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Page 15 Table 1 Reduction in the Number of Suppliers Company Number of Suppliers Current Previous 5,000 10,000 9,000 10,000 1,800 22,000 520 7,500 Percentage Change 90. 00% 70. 00% 66. 66% 45. 00% 44. 44% 36. 36% 26. 92% 20. 00% Xerox Motorola Digital Equipment Ge neral Motors Ford Motor Texas Instruments Rainbird Allied-Signal Aerospace 500 3,000 3,000 5,500 1,000 14,000 380 6,000 Source: Emshwiller . Page 16 Figure 1 Changing Paradigm of Organizational Purchasing Strategy Global Competitiveness Technology Enablers Changing Paradigms of Procurement TQM Philosophy Industry Restructuring Page 17 Figure 2 Shift in Organizational Purchasing Strategy Global Sourcing Changing Paradigms of Procurement Transaction Oriented Relationship Oriented Industry Restructuring Domestic Sourcing Page 18 Figure 3 Emerging Areas of Expertise in Supplier Relationships Service Procurement Supplier as a Customer Cross Functional Supplier Teams Cross-National Rules Partnering Cross Cultural Values Supply Experience Curve Global Sourcing Bonding with Suppliers Hub and Spoke Organization Page 19 How to cite Supplier Relationships: a Strategic Initiative, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Cloning Essay, Research Paper Cloning Cloning worlds has late become a possibility that seems much more possible in today s society sunburn it was 20 old ages ago. It is a method that involves the production of a group of indistinguishable cells or beings that all originate from a individual person. It is non known when or how cloning worlds truly became a possibility, but is known that there are two possible ways that we can clone worlds. The first manner involves dividing an embryo into several halves and making many new persons from that embryo. The 2nd method of cloning a human involves taking cells from an already bing human being cloning them, in bend making other persons that are indistinguishable to that peculiar individual. With these two methods about at our fingertips, we must inquire ourselves two really import inquiries. Can we make this, and should we? There is no uncertainty that many jobs affecting the technological and ethical sides of this issue will come up and will be virtually impossible to avoid, bu t the overall thought of cloning worlds is one that we should accept as a possible world for the hereafter. Cloning worlds is an thought that has ever been thought of as something that could be found in scientific discipline fiction novels, but neer as a construct that society could really see. Crazy thoughts about cloning prevarication in many scientific discipline fiction books and frighten the populace with their incredible possibilities. David Rorvik wrote a extremely controversial book entitled IN HIS IMAGE. In it he describes the narrative of a affluent adult male who decides to clone himself. He is successful in making this and causes rather an uprise in his community. This book was written in the late 1970ss and even so, societies reaction to the issues of human cloning was by and large a negative 1. We face a job today even greater than the 1 in this book and it involves the duplicate of human existences in a society that has ever been known for its difference. The chief issue as to whether or non human cloning is possible through the splitting of embryos began in 1993 when experimentation was done at George Washington University Medical Center in Washington, D.C. There Dr. Jerry Hall experimented with the possibility o f human cloning and began this moral and ethical argument. There it was concluded that cloning is non something that can be done as of now, but it is rather a possibility for the hereafter. These scientists experimented thirstily in purposes of larning how to clone human. Shannon Brownie of U.S. News A ; World Report writes, Hall and other scientists split individual worlds embryos into indistinguishable transcripts, a engineering that opens a Pandora s box of ethical inquiries and has sparked a storm of contention around the universe. They attempted to make 17 human embryos in a laboratory dish and when it had grown plenty, separated them into forty-either single cells. Two of the detached cells survived for a few yearss i n the lab developed into new human embryos smaller than the caput of pin and consisting of 32 cells each. Although we can non clone a human yet, this experiment occurred about two old ages ago and triggered about an ethical exigency. Evidence from these experiments got unusual reactions from the populace. Shannon Brownie claims, The Vatican condemned the engineering of this experiment as being perverse, one German magazine called the research unscrupulous. This experiment opened the possibilities of cloning to society and, even though it was unsuccessful, led people to inquire themselves what they would make if cloning were to go on. Common replies to the puzzling inquiries about worlds and cloning are still seeking to be answered today, and scientists and the populace are eager to larn all they can about cloning. Many beginnings province that cloning is merely merely an extension of fertilisation, but the root of cloning goes farther than that. Cloning embryos is different from the familial procedure of in vitro fertilisation, but still holds many similarities with it. For illustration, the procedure of fertilisation is reasonably straightforward, it involves taking an egg from the adult female and taking sperm from the adult male. The embryo is therefore formed and implanted into the adult female s uterus. The embryo develops usually and is born with unpredictable features of both the adult male and the adult female. The offspring ends up as alone single and excepting the particular instance of twins has no the human being precisely like it. It uses on embryo that is form the get downing a distinguishable person and creates merely one homo that is fundamentally wholly original. Cloning besides goes through this same procedure, but it is unlike fertilisation in that it takes the same type embryo and destroys its originality through duplicate. Research on fertilisation helps to better its technique and besides AIDSs in scien tists their hunt for better ways to clone worlds. Since scientists have already done a great trade with fertilisation, inquiries affecting the should we aspect of the issue frequently comes up. What excess small step has to be taken to do a ringer a twosome undergoing fertilisation, and what would go on in our value of worlds with this new world? Another big facet to see is how much money the are of genetic sciences utilizations every twelvemonth. When cloning comes about society net incomes will increase, and people will be willing to pay anything for a ringer of themselves. It is such a dearly-won from of engineering. Society will make all sorts of things for money. A type of black market for embryos could easy someday develop. Parents already spend a great trade of money on fertilisation, and who knows how much they would be willing to pay for cloning their kids? The inquiry as to what cloning would make to society organize both the moral and economic point of views comes to the decision that for the most portion cloning is excessively expensive and excessively unsafe. On the positive side of this issue, nevertheless, embryologic cloning could be a valuable tool for the perusal of human development, genetically modifying embryos, and look intoing new graft engineerings. Using cloning to merchandise offspring for variety meats is an issue that we must besides confront and oppugn whether or non it is morally right. No 1 will state that it is all right to kill a human being for the interest of their variety meats but many have no expostulations to cloning 1000s and of persons that look likewise. Merely believe, how would you explicate cloning to your kids, and what would their positions about society be? One of the many inquiries brought up was sing whether or non cloning should be an option for parents that are sing holding kids. Some people believe that cloning should take its chief focal point to assisting sterile twosomes and they will probably reason that there is nil incorrect with it. The barely concealed premise that anything that helps overcome sterility is morally appropriate. Cloning is noted to be better for handling sterility in the sense that it can extinguish wellness jobs with the kid organize the beginning. This proves to be good in the manner that a twosome is more than probably guaranteed a healthy kid. Cloning does non, nevertheless, ever turn out to be good. For illustration, in the instance where a certain disease is no the rise and one of say three ringers get it. The immune system of the other two ringers is indistinguishable which proves that they have no guard against diseases. Since embryologic cloning has non been successful yet, no existent experiments like the one performed at George Washington University have been done yet. We do cognize, nevertheless, know that cloning from an already bing human adult male efficaciously work in the close hereafter. In a film called, Boys signifier Brazil, two ringers of Hitler are purportedly produced from a cell obtained incorporating Hitler s cistrons. This cell was in bend joined with an egg, and an embryo was formed incorporating entirely the cistrons of Hitler with merely the necessary 1s from the Woman. This scientific discipline fiction-like experiment was done for many grounds, but it was largely intended to prove the ringers behavior off organize one another and to see if any certain family of attitude can be passed on from one ringer to another. The male childs in this film seem to demo this program through their little shows of Hitler s personality traits even after being raised apart with wholly different life styles. Surveies of how cloned persons would associate to one another are found with the experiment of twins separated at birth and raised in two really difference environments. Because nature makes its ain ringers through the procedure of twins, it is easy to research about how a ringer might experience and how they would respond to holding another ringer around them. Environment plays a large portion in finding how a ringer may turn out in The Boys from Brazil, both male childs develop their ain personalities but still seem to hold many similarities with one another. Many parents have great concern in respects to holding a kid that has been cloned. However, there are many aroused parents looking frontward to this discovery in engineering. By looking at the many different grounds for cloning a kid, one can break understand why it may look appealing to parents. Cloning signifier an already bing homo will supply the chance there are many aroused parents looking frontward to this discovery in engineering. By looking at the many different grounds for cloning a kid, one can break understand why it may look appealing to parents. Cloning from an already bing homo will supply the chance for parents to pick their thought. Whether or non cloning happens with embryos or grownups, assorted groups in society may respond really otherwise to it. For illustration, there are many spiritual groups that feel cloning should non be considered for any grounds whatsoever. Richard McCormick for Christian Century, believes that human cloning is an highly societal affair, non a inquiry of mere personal privateness. I see three dimensions to the moral inquiry the integrity of life, the individualism of life, and the regard for life. In his article base Don faith and cloning, he explains that all animals come signifier God with their ain certain singularity about them. He points out the fact that the pre-embryo is human and is populating even in its first phases of development. This somehow parallels to the issue of abortion and whether or non human cloning is an highly societal affair, non a inquiry of mere personal privateness. No affair what we say or do, research for cloning will steadily go on and even more moral and ethical issues will originate. Who knows which of the two sorts of cloning will go the most popular in the hereafter, but right now the chief base we need to take is whether or non it can be done and should be done. Who knows if human cloning done in research labs soon will travel beyond the research lab and affect persons lives. What we do cognize nevertheless, is that cloning seems to really appealing in some facets and really scaring in others. Barbara Ehrenreich makes a rather humourous wordplay noticing on coming possibility of ringer worlds. She states, When the engineering arrives for cloning grownup persons, familial immortality should be within range of the mean multimillionaire. Ross Perot will be followed by a flock of small re-Rosses.
Monday, March 30, 2020
What New Media Will Look Like in 2023 A Time Travel into the Era When Innovations Clash with Ownership Issues
Introduction: New Media and Its Potential The third millennium has definitely brought many innovations to enjoy, and the Internet has become by far the most valuable of them. However, in the online sphere, a number of ownership issues arises. Because of the seeming availability of the online information, the copyright infringements become highly likely to occur.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on What New Media Will Look Like in 2023: A Time Travel into the Era When Innovations Clash with Ownership Issues specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It can be assumed that in ten years from now, in 2023, only a reasonable legislation concerning the new types of media can help people retain their ownership of specific virtual property. Concerning the Possible Ownership Issues in 2023: A Prospective Look Despite the fact that ten years is enough for the world to change to the point where it becomes hardly recognizable, some issues concerning copyrighted information and ownership will remain in the same spot where they are now, in 2013. However, with the ten-year innovations, these problems can grow greatly. Social networking and the accessible information Because of the growing impossibility to control the content that the users upload in the blogosphere, it is highly likely that in the future, some users will simply copy a specific picture/video and use it further on without the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s permission (McDowell). Apple and its hardware policy: the wind of change In contrast to the owners and users of blogospheres, hardware producing companies seem to have reinforced their ammunition against Ã¢â¬Å"pirates.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, it can be considered that in future, such companies as Apple will reduce the instances of ownership rights infringement. Open hardware and the source code: future concerns It is important to keep in mind that the more complicated the security system becomes, the more sophi sticated the hacking tools turn. The existing evidence shows that the Ã¢â¬Å"competenceÃ¢â¬ of online hackers is growing and that the ownership issues are going to be very topical in 2023, especially in the light of the emergence of such sources of copyrighted content as torrents (Kravets).Advertising Looking for critical writing on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Drones/guns: printing in 3-D and the associated problems According to Harouni, 3-D printers have been around for a while, but people learned about them only abut thirty years from when the first concepts of these devices appeared. Therefore, 3-D printers are yet to be improved and marketed as a new facility. However, even at the given stage of development, 3-D printers already pose an ownership dilemma. If these machines can reproduce certain products, the original creators and developers of the products will be left without their legitimate revenues (Harouni). Pros and Cons of the Ownership Issue: By the Power of Copyright As one might have already guessed, the key problem will concern tracing the copying of online information is hardly possible. The case of Instagram: sharing as the key principle On the one hand, in 2023, the internet users might consider the idea of copyright issues on the Internet absurd and enjoy knowledge and information sharing without any concern, as in Instagram. On the other hand, in case of using oneÃ¢â¬â¢s work of art, the rights of the owner will be infringed (Franzen). It is feared that in 2023, not only Instagram, but also a number of other services will work according to the given principle. In Search for the Solution: The Rule of Thumb in Action Despite the obvious obstacles, there are the ways to make sure that the rightful owners of online content will feel safe about their property in 2023. Stallman and his four freedoms: taking responsibilities Therefore, the key problem of onlin e ownership in 2923 will concern the problem of drawing the line between knowledge sharing and private ownership.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on What New Media Will Look Like in 2023: A Time Travel into the Era When Innovations Clash with Ownership Issues specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, with the help of StallmanÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of four freedoms, i.e., starting from the freedom to run the program any way the user wants to the ability to customize the program. Cathedral and bazaar models of agencies When considering the idea of online ownership in 2023, one will have to decide whether the content in question should be related to as the one belonging to the cathedral model, or to the bazaar one. In the latter case, the content should be regarded as free to share all over the Internet; in the former, it is guarded by ownership laws. With such classification, the future of online content will be m ore or less save in 2023. Cookie law: do-not-track policy One can also expect that in 2023, the famous Cookie Law will provide a different perspective on the problem. It is a well-known fact that HTTP cookies are very simple to intercept and even modify as long as the Internet surfers do not use SSL services. Thus, the policy that demands clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ consent for placing their cookies on a certain website has been developed. A rather clever decision, it will probably help avoid the issue with copyright and privacy rights infringement in 2023. Overcoming the Possible Obstacles: The Controversy Because of the confusion of the ideas of shared information and the private content, the users of the Internet in 2023 might encounter considerable issues with ownership laws (Palmer). It can be assumed that, with the help of a set of strict laws concerning ownership of online content, some of the issues may be resolved.Advertising Looking for critical writing on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion: There Is Still Much to Think over Therefore, the issue of ownership on the Internet will definitely grow more complicated in 2023. With the technological advances, pirating will become insultingly accessible. Providing reasonable regulations concerning the copyright and ownership issues will not suffice Ã¢â¬â it will be necessary to help people develop conscious approach towards the use of online sources. Works Cited Franzen, C. Instagram Users Are Right to Be Worried, Copyright Experts Say. 2012. Web. Harouni, L. A Primer on 3-D Printing. TED.Ã 2012. Web. Kravets, D. Biggest BitTorrent Downloading Case in U.S. History Targets 23,000 Defendants. 2011. Web. McDowell, G. Richard Stallman at UofC. 2009. Web. Palmer, A. The Art of Asking. TED. 2013. Web. This critical writing on What New Media Will Look Like in 2023: A Time Travel into the Era When Innovations Clash with Ownership Issues was written and submitted by user Jonathan Ortega to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Biography of Fe del Mundo, Noted Filipino Pediatrician Fe Del Mundo (Nov. 27, 1911Ã¢â¬âAug. 6, 2011) is credited with studies that led to the invention of an improved incubator and a device to treat jaundice.Ã Along with pioneering work inÃ pediatrics, she had an active medical practiceÃ in the Philippines that spanned eight decades and founded a major childrens hospital in that country. Fast Facts: Fe Del Mundo Known For: Conducted studies that led to the invention of an improved incubator and a device to treat jaundice. She also founded a major childrens hospital in the Philippines and created the BRAT diet.Also Known As: Fe Villanueva del Mundo, FÃ © Primitiva del Mundo y VillanuevaBorn: Nov. 27, 1911 in Manila, PhilippinesParents: Paz (nÃ ©e Villanueva) and Bernardo del MundoDied: Aug. 6, 2011Ã in Quezon City, PhilippinesEducation: UP College of Medicine (original campus of theÃ University of the Philippines)Ã inÃ Manila (1926Ã¢â¬â1933, medical degree),Ã Boston University School of Medicine (Master of Science in Bacteriology, 1940), Harvard Medical Schools Childrens Hospital (1939Ã¢â¬â1941, two-year research fellowship)Published Works: Textbook of Pediatrics and Child Health (1982), she also authored more than 100 articles, reviews, and reports published inÃ medical journalsAwards and Honors: National Scientist of the Philippines, Elizabeth Blackwell Award for Outstan ding Service to Mankind (1966), Ramon Magsaysay Award for Outstanding Public Service (1977), named Outstanding Pediatrician and Humanitarian by the International Pediatric Association (1977)Notable Quote: Ã¢â¬Å"I told the Americans who wanted me to stay that I prefer to go home and help the children. I know that with my training for five years at Harvard and different medical institutions in America, I can do much.Ã¢â¬ Early Years and Education Del Mundo was born in Manila on Nov. 27, 1911. She was the sixth of eight children.Ã Her father Bernardo served one term in the Philippine Assembly, representing the province ofÃ Tayabas. Three of her eight siblings died in infancy,Ã while an older sister died fromÃ appendicitisÃ at age 11.Ã It was the death of her older sister, who had made known her desire to become a doctor for the poor, that pushed the young Del Mundo toward the medical profession. At age 15, Del Mundo entered the University of the Philippines and earned a medical degree with highest honors in 1933. In 1940, she received a masters degree in bacteriology from the Boston University School of Medicine. Some sources say that Del Mundo was Harvard Medical Schools first female medical student. The university itself says that is inaccurate, as Harvard did not admit female medical students at the time and there are no records of Del Mundo attending or graduating. However, Del Mundo did complete a two-year research fellowship at Harvard Medical Schools Childrens Hospital in 1941. The Angel of Santo Tomas Del Mundo returned to the Philippines in 1941. She joined theÃ International Red CrossÃ and volunteered to care for children-internees at theÃ University of Santo TomasÃ internment camp for foreign nationals.Ã She established a makeshift hospice within the internment camp and became known as The Angel of Santo Tomas. After the Japanese authorities shut down the hospice in 1943, Del Mundo was asked by Manilas mayor to head a childrens hospital under the auspices of the city government. The hospital was later converted into a full-care medical center to cope with the increasing casualties during theÃ Battle of Manila and would be renamed the North General Hospital. Del Mundo would remain the hospitals director until 1948. Del Mundo later became the director of the Department of Pediatrics at Far Eastern University and her breakthroughs in research surrounding infant care led to commonlyÃ practicedÃ methods worldwide- including the BRAT diet, which cures diarrhea. Del Mundo Opens Hospital Frustrated by the bureaucratic constraints in working for a government hospital, Del Mundo wanted to establish her own pediatric hospital. She sold her home and got a loan to finance the construction of her own hospital. The Childrens Medical Center, a 100-bed hospital located inÃ Quezon City, was inaugurated in 1957 as the first pediatric hospital in the Philippines. The hospital was expanded in 1966 through the establishment of an Institute of Maternal and Child Health, the first institution of its kind inÃ Asia. Later Years and Death Having sold her home to finance the medical center, del Mundo chose to reside on the second floor of the hospital itself. She retained her living quarters at the hospital, rising daily and continuing to make her daily rounds, even though she was wheelchair-bound in her later years. Del Mundo died at age 99 on Aug. 6, 2011,Ã in Quezon City, Philippines. Legacy Del Mundos accomplishments are still remembered years after her death. The hospital she founded is still open and now bears her name, the Fe Del Mundo Medical Center. In November 2018, Del Mundo was honored with a Google doodle. Under the doodle, which the search engine site displays occasionally on its home page to honor various notable individuals, Google added the caption: Del Mundos choice to specialize in pediatrics may have been shaped by the loss of 3 siblings, who died as infants during her childhood in Manila. Sources Betuel, Emma. Ã¢â¬Å"Fe Del Mundo, Fearless Female Doctor, Describes Her Life in Her Own Words.Ã¢â¬ Ã Inverse.Chris Riotta New York chrisriotta. Ã¢â¬Å"Inside the Life of Fe Del Mundo, Harvard Medical Schools First Female Student.Ã¢â¬ Ã The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 27 Nov. 2018.Ã¢â¬Å"Home.Ã¢â¬ Fe Del Mundo Medical Center | Hospital Quezon City, 19 Mar. 2019.Ã¢â¬Å"HWS: Fe Del Mundo.Ã¢â¬ Ã Hobart and William Smith CollegesÃ¯ » ¿Smith, Kiona N. Ã¢â¬Å"Tuesdays Google Doodle Honors Pediatrician Fe Del Mundo.Ã¢â¬ Ã Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 27 Nov. 2018.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
The nurses' responsability in the prevention of medication errors - Essay Example egarding medical malpractices, the quality of care needs not be assumed and must at all times be considered as a crucial aspect in medical practice (Reason, 2000). The author continues to argue that medical practitioners have faced disciplinary issues, shame, and threats due to malpractices. Since nurses are major players in offering medical care, they are concerned with the health of an individual from the onset of medication till the end (Cohen, 2007). In light of this argument, it is argued that nurses play the major role of ensuring that they understand the major factors that lead to errors in the medical provision. This role of prevention of errors is crucial in the prevention of medical errors (Cohen, 2007). These errors include incorrect calculations of medical dosages, improper consultations, inexperience, and failure to adhere to the set protocols amongst others (Cohen, 2007). With these avenues of medical errors in place, the quality of medical service is then jeopardized. In this case, the nurse should play the major role of ensuring that they minimize the avenues of cropping up of medical errors as possible. A good example is that of the nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ conversance with the FEMA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) that has been instrumental in alleviating chem otherapy errors (Hartranft, Sheridan-Leos, & Schulmeister, 2006). Nurses are able to come up with thoughts on how to safeguard the safety of the patient care. Despite the fact that Cohen (2007) indicates that the nurses are mostly forced by the management to cause some of these errors, they should be on the frontline to ensure that they minimize as many challenges as they can. Secondly, in the medical setting, they must have vast experimental knowledge in the concerned field (Cohen, 2007). This allows the nurses have a big picture of the entire case, always countercheck the medical history of a patient prior to making any form of conclusion (Cima, Ã¢â¬Å½2011). This means that the nurse is able to offer